This document provides an overview of actors as they apply to wasCC and WebAssembly.

The Actor Model

The actor model has been around since 1979 and is not a new concept, though lately it seems to be enjoying something of a rennaissance. An actor is the fundamental primitive of concurrent computation.

Actors are reactive. In response to receiving a message, a traditional actor can:

  • make local decisions
  • create more actors
  • send more messages
  • determine how to respond to the next message received

In the case of a waSCC actor, the only activity that actors are not allowed to perform is create new actors, which is a secure, privileged activity reserved for the host runtime.

WebAssembly Actors

A subtle, yet vitally important benefit of the actor model is that all of the code that you execute within the confines of the actor is single-threaded. Actor developers do not have to worry about multi-threading, concurrency, or re-entrant functions.

The job of the actor developer is to simply define a response to each type of message in which the actor is interested. Actors are also completely and blissfully unaware of how their non-functional requirements are being met.

Actors do not know if there is an HTTP server present, or if there is a message broker present. If they are present, the actors do not know which specific products or services are proving those capabilities.

In waSCC, an actor defines message handlers, which the host runtime will invoke every time there is a new message targeted at that actor.

Actors in Rust

In the Rust actor SDK, you indicate your handler functions to the host runtime by using the actor_handlers! macro:

actor_handlers { codec::http::OP_HANDLE_REQUEST => increment_counter,
                 codec::core::OP_HEALTH_REQUEST => health }

Then you simply define your handler functions, which can access host capabilities dynamically bound at runtime:

fn increment_counter(msg: codec::http::Request) -> CallResult {
    let key = msg.path.replace('/', ":");
    let value = keyvalue::default().atomic_add(&key, 1)?;
    let result = json!({ "counter": value });
    Ok(serialize(codec::http::Response::json(result, 200, "OK"))?)

fn health(_h: codec::core::HealthRequest) -> ReceiveResult {

Compiling this code into the wasm32-unknown-unknown target and signing it is then all that’s necessary to build an actor. For more scenario-specific information on building actors, check out the tutorials section or the GitHub examples.